What is Referencing?

This brief guide is primarily for students doing assignments at Curtin University not for those publishing using the APA 6th style.
If you are publishing in the APA 6th style please consult the APA publication manual:
American Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington DC: Author.
If you require extra help not available in this guide please try
? APA style guide to electronic references
? APA Style Blog
Guide contents
Overview:
? What is referencing?
? Why reference?
? Steps involved in referencing
? Elements of a reference
? Sample reference list
? Reference types for EndNote X7
Reference Examples:
? Books and eBooks
? Journals (Print and Online)
? World Wide Web
? Government Publications
? Other Sources
? Authors Citing Other Authors
It is important that you check the assignment guide of your Department or School as details may vary from the guidelines on this sheet. You may be penalised for not using the referencing style that is required by your School/Department.
Academic integrity and plagiarism
Plagiarism breaches academic integrity and is a serious accusation in academia. Make sure you
avoid plagiarism by referencing your sources.
Refer to the Curtin University student booklet Academic Integrity: Student Guidelines for Avoiding Plagiarism for definitions and University policies relating to academic integrity and plagiarism.
CURTIN UNIVERSITY LIBRARY
APA 6th REFERENCING
Page 2 of 14
What is Referencing?
Referencing is a standardised method of acknowledging sources of information and ideas that you have used in your assignment in a way that uniquely identifies their source. Direct quotations facts and figures as well as ideas and theories from both published and unpublished works must be referenced.
Why Reference?
Referencing is necessary to avoid plagiarism to verify quotations and to enable readers to follow-up and read more fully the cited authors arguments.
Steps Involved in Referencing
1. Collecting Bibliographic Details
Note down the full bibliographic details of the source from which the information is taken including the relevant page number(s). This information is the basis of a citation or reference.
In the case of a book bibliographical details refers to: author/editor year of publication title edition volume number place of publication and publisher as found on the front and back of the title page. (Not all of these details will necessarily be applicable).
In the case of a journal article the details required include: author of the article year of publication title of the article title of the journal volume and issue number of the journal and page numbers.
For all electronic information in addition to the above you should note the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) if one exists and if one does not exist the web address (URL) of the database you found the article in. For more details see the DOI Information Sheet.
2. In-Text Citations
A citation inserted at the appropriate place within the text of the document is called an in-text citation. This usually takes the form of the name of the author followed by the year of publication.
Two acceptable forms of in-text citations are:
Miller and Collins (2009) use and when family names are outside parentheses (Miller & Collins 2009) use & when family names are inside parentheses
If two or more authors are cited at the same point in the text then they are included in the same in-text citation separated by a semicolon e.g. (Brown 1991; Smith 2003).
Short quotes
For fewer that 40 words incorporate the quote into the text and use double quotation marks.
. (Brown & Brown 2008 p.112).
Brown and Brown (2008) suggested (p. 112) and this would provide
When paraphrasing the APA 6th manual (p.171) encourages you to provide page or paragraph numbers to help the reader locate the information.
Use paragraph number for .html documents (e.g. British Empire 1922 2009 para.4)
Page 3 of 14
Page Numbers
Use p. for a single page and pp. for double pages.
Long Quotes
If the quotation is 40 or more words use a freestanding block of text
? start on a new line
? indent the block about half an inch from the left
? use double spacing
? omit quotations marks
3. Reference List
A reference list includes books journal articles etc that you have cited in the text of your essay whereas a bibliography is a list of sources consulted as well as cited.
? The reference should appear at the end of your work on a separate page
? The reference list is arranged alphabetically by author
? Where an item has no author it is cited and listed by its title
? The second and subsequent lines of each reference need a hanging indent
? Use double spacing between references
Example of a Reference List in the APA style
Reference Types to use with EndNote
Page 4 of 14
Elements of a Reference
A reference or citation consists of elements that allow the reader to trace the original book article or website you have consulted and cited.
Underlined hyperlink in URL
This can be removed if required. APA has no rule regarding the inclusion of a hyperlink and they provide no guidance. This is at the discretion of the respective lecturers. For more information see the APA Style Blog FAQ
Book title
Mack C. (2005). Looking at the Renaissance: Essays toward a conceptual appreciation. London UK: Taylor & Francis.
Author
(Year)
Place of publication
Publisher
Book:
Pope J. & Owen A. D. (2009). Emission trading schemes: Potential revenue effects compliance costs and overall tax policy issues. Energy Policy 37 4595-4603. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2009.06.014
Journal article from a database:
DOI
Journal title
Volume number
Web Page:
Article page numbers
Steel W. (2008). Hints for web authors. Retrieved from http://www.mcsr.olemiss.edu/~mudws/webhints.html
Author
(Year)
Title
URL of the web page
Title of the journal article
Author
(Year)
Reference Types to use with EndNote
For Reference Types to use with EndNote click here for the EndNote X5 LibGuide
For Reference Types to use with EndNote click here for the EndNote X5 LibGuide
For Reference Types to use with EndNote click here for the EndNote X5 LibGuide
Page 5 of 14
Books (Print & Online) In-Text Example Reference List Examples
Single author
The theory was first considered in 2000 (Pash 2008)
OR
Pash (2008) claimed that
Pash C. (2008). The last whale. North Fremantle WA: Fremantle Press.
2 authors
Roitman and LaFontaine (2012)
OR
to achieve consistency (Roitman & LaFontaine 2012 p. 45)
Roitman J. L. & LaFontaine T. P. (2012). The exercise professionals guide to optimizing
health: Strategies for preventing and reducing chromic disease. Philadelphia PA:
Wolters Kluwer Health.
345 authors
Conking Alley Broecker and Denton (2011)
Cite all authors the first time the reference occurs.
In subsequent citations include only the surname of the first author followed by et al.
Conking et al. (2011) suggested that
OR
(Conking et al. 2011)
Conking P. W. Alley R. B. Broecker W. S. & Denton G. H. (2011). The fate of Greenland: Lessons from abrupt climate change. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.
67 authors
Bulliet et al. (2011) found that
OR
(Bulliet et al. 2011)
Cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al.
Bulliet R. W. Crossley P. K. Headrick D. R. Hirsch S. W. Johnson L. L. & Northrup D. (2011). The earth and its peoples: A global history (5th ed.). Boston MA: Wadsworth.
8 or more authors
(Gradel et al. 2007 p. 35)
OR
Gradel et al. (2007 p. 35) stated
Cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al.
Gradel E. Kolaitis P. G. Libkin L. Marx M. Spencer J. Vardi M. Y. Weinstein S.
(2007). Finite model theory and its applications. Berlin Germany: Springer.
For works with 8 or more authors list the first 6 authors followed by 3 full stops () then the last authors name.
No author
(Employment the professional way 2000)
OR
the book Employment the professional way (2000)
Shorten title
Employment the professional way: A guide to understanding the Australian job search process for professionally qualified migrants. (2000). Carlton Vic: Australian
Multicultural Foundation.
Page 6 of 14
Books (Print & Online) In-Text Example Reference List Examples
Multiple works by same author
University research (Martin 2008 2010) has indicated that
Martin G. (2008). Essentials of terrorism: Concepts and controversies. Los Angeles CA: Sage
Publications.
Martin G. (2010). Understanding terrorism: Challenges perspectives and issues. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications.
Order chronologically in the reference list.
Multiple works published in the same year by the same author
In recent reports (Napier 1993a 1993b)
Use a/b etc. to differentiate between works in same year.
Napier A. (1993a). Fatal storm. Sydney NSW: Allen & Unwin.
Napier A. (1993b). Survival at sea. Sydney NSW: Allen & Unwin.
Order alphabetically by title in the reference list.
Works by different authors with same surname
(L. Green 2010) OR L. Green (2010)
(R. Green 2008) OR R. Green (2008)
Green L. (2010). The internet: An introduction to new media. New York NY: Berg.
Green R. (2008). Global warming. Ann Arbor MI: Cherry Lake Publishing.
Editor
(Kasdorf 2003 p. 15)
Kasdorf W. E. (Ed.). (2003). The Columbia guide to digital publishing. New York NY:
Columbia University Press.
Different Editions
(Renton 2004 p. 51)
OR
(Merriam-Websters collegiate dictionary 2005)
Renton N. (2004). Compendium of good writing (3rd ed.). Milton Keynes UK: John Wiley & Sons.
OR
Merriam-Websters collegiate dictionary (11th ed.). (2005). Springfield MA: Merriam-Webster.
An edition number is placed after the title of the work this is not necessary for a first edition.
Encyclopedia or
Dictionary or multi-volume work
The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians (1980 p.85) defined it as
Sadie S. (Ed.). (1980). The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians (6th ed. Vols. 1-20). London UK: Macmillan.
Article or chapter in a book
As discussed by Friedl (2003)
Friedl E. (2003). Society and sex roles. In J. P. Spradley & D. W. McCurdy (Eds.) Conformity and conflict: Readings in cultural anthropology (11th ed. pp. 261-289). Boston MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Article or chapter in a book no author
(Solving the Y2K Problem 1997)
Put title in quotation marks.
Solving the Y2K problem. (1997). In D. Bowd (Ed.) Technology today and tomorrow (p. 27). New York NY:
Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Image in a book
The poster The 3 dark years (Sexton 2005 p. 184)
Sexton M. (2005). The great crash: The short life and sudden death of the Whitlam government. Melbourne Vic: Scribe Publications.
Page 7 of 14
Books (Print & Online) In-Text Example Reference List Example
Book review
(Robbins 2010)
Robbins M. (2011). Conservation biology [Review of the book The American bird conservancy guide to bird conservation by D. J. Lebbin M. J. Parr & G. H. Fenwick]. The Quarterly Review of Biology 86(4) 343-344. http:dx.doi.org/10.1086/662504
Electronic book
(eBook)
(Apolloni Pedrycz Bassis & Malchiodi 2008 p. 130)
Apolloni B. Pedrycz W. Bassis S. & Malchiodi D. (2008). The puzzle of granular computing.
Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com.dbgw.lis.curtin.edu.au/content/g6u77ux5v746/ #section=246151&page=1
Supply DOI where available or URL (shorten URL) in the absence of DOI.
Chapter in eBook
(Andrzej Michael & Philip 2011)
Andrzej G. Michael B. & Philip C. (2011). High performance computing clouds. In B. Benatallah (Ed.) Cloud computing methodology systems and applications (pp. 221-259). http://dx.doi.org/:doi:10.1201/b11149-14
Thesis or Dissertationunpublished
(Ciccarelli 2008 p. 89)
Ciccarelli M. L. (2008). Variation of posture and muscle activity during information and communication technology use by adults and school children. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Curtin
University of Technology Bentley W.A.
Thesis or Dissertationpublished available from an institutional database
(Dwyer 2009 p. 152)
Dwyer R. (2009). Agency and exchange: An ethnography of heroin marketplace. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://espace.library.curtin.edu.au
Shorten URL Journals (Print & Online) In-Text Example Reference List Example
Article
(Print)
As mentioned by Morberg Lagerstrom and Dellve (2009)
OR
the head school nurses job (Morberg Lagerstrom & Dellve
2009 p. 813)
Morberg S. Lagerstrom M. & Dellve L. (2009). The perceived perceptions of head school nurses in developing school nursing roles within schools. Journal of Nursing Management 17 813-821.
Where the page numbers in the entire volume run consecutively do not use issue number after the volume number.
Article no author
(Print)
(New Baltic Icebreakers 2005)
Use a short title with capitalisation and enclosed in quotation marks.
New Baltic icebreakers under construction at Baltiyski Zavod. (2005). Naval Architect (July/August) 32-34.
Newspaper article
(Wilson 2009)
(Seelye 2010)
Wilson A. (2009 November 26). BHP Billiton cautious on pace of global economic growth. The Australian p. 3.
If electronic give the URL of the newspaper homepage.
Seelye K.Q. (2012 December 3). Spate of harsh weather in New England shifts sentiment on trees. The New
York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com
Page 8 of 14
Journals (Print & Online) In-Text Example Reference List Example
Newspaper article no author
(Ingenuity and Hard Work 2009)
Use a short title with capitalisation and enclosed in quotation marks.
Ingenuity and hard work 20 years of internet in Australia. (2009 November 26). Sydney Morning Herald p. 35.
If electronic give the URL of the newspaper homepage. Use Retrieved from followed by URL.
Press release
(Watersmith 2000)
(American Psychological Association 2010 )
Watersmith C. (2000 March 1). BHP enters new era [Press release]. Melbourne Vic: BHP Limited.
American Psychological Association. (2010 August 15). Todays superheroes send wrong image to boys
say researchers [Press release]. Retrieved from
http://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2010/08/macho- stereotype-unhealthy.aspx
Full text journal from an electronic database DOI available
(Pope & Owen 2009)
OR
As Pope and Owen (2009) state
Pope J. & Owen A. D. (2009). Emission trading schemes: Potential revenue effects compliance costs and overall tax policy issues. Energy Policy 37 4595-4603. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2009.06.014
Where the page numbers in the entire volume run consecutively do not use issue number after the volume number. Do not include the name of the database. Use Retrieved from followed by URL if no DOI
Full text journal from an electronic database DOI not available
(Marshall & Anderson 2008 p.464)
OR
As Marshall and Anderson (2008 p.464) state
If the article is in .pdf format cite the page number. If it is in .html format cite the paragraph number.
Marshall K. & Anderson J. (2008). The Emperors new clothes: A meta-study of education technology
policies in Ireland North and South (1996-2006). Computers & Education 50(2) 463-474. Retrieved from
http://www.sciencedirect.com
APA recommends using the journal homepage. However for practical reasons the University has adopted the gateway URL as this will be easier for students. Shorten URL.
Include the issue number if the journal is paginated by issue.
Full text journal from an electronic database no author
The Internet has had a huge impact on the Australian economy (Mobile Phone Addiction 2010)
Put title in quotation marks.
Mobile phone addiction: A point of issue. (2010). Addiction 105 373-374. Retrieved from http://proquest.umi.com
Where the page numbers in the entire volume run consecutively do not use issue number after the volume number. Shorten URL. Use Retrieved from followed by URL if no DOI.
Full text newspaper newswire or
magazine from an electronic
database no
author
(Call to Save Indigenous Languages 2009)
Put title in quotation marks. Shorten title if necessary.
Call to save indigenous languages. (2009 October 31). The Canberra Times. Retrieved from
http://global.factiva.com
Shorten URL
Page 9 of 14
Journals (Print & Online) In-Text Example Reference List Example
Full text from Internet more than 7 authors
Keogh et al. 2009 p.256)
If an article is in .pdf format cite the page number. If it is in .html format cite the paragraph number.
Keogh L. A. van Vliet C. M. Studdert D. M. Maskiell J. A. Macrae F. A. St John D. J. Jenkins M. A. (2009). Is the uptake of genetic testing for colorectal cancer influenced by knowledge of insurance implications? Medical Journal of Australia 191(5) 255-258. Retrieved from http://www.mja.com.au/ public/issues/191_05_070909/keo11470_fm.pdf
For works with more than 7 authors list the first 6 authors followed by 3 fullstops () then spell out the last authors name. For other author variations refer to page 5.
In-press article
(Briscoe in press)
Briscoe R. (in press). Egocentric spatial representation in action and perception. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. Retrieved from http://cogprints.org/57801/ECSRAP.F07.pdf
Abstract as original source
(Giglia 2012)
Use if full text is not available
Giglia R.C. (2012). Alcohol consumption for breastfeeding women: Where to for policy makers? Current Pediatric Reviews 8(4) 299-303. Abstract retrieved from http://www.scopus.com.dbgw.lis.curtin.edu.au
Use if full text is not available
Article from Curtin
E-Reserve
(Flahvin 1997 p.12)
Flahvin A. (1997). Sattin and the spectre of media liability for negligence. Communications Law
Bulletin 16(4) 11-14. Retrieved from http://edocs.library.curtin.edu.au/eres_display.cgi? url=dc60209184.pdf
Systematic Reviews
(Leach & Morris 2006)
Leach A. J. & Morris P. S. (2006). Antibiotics for the prevention of acute and chronic suppurative otitis media in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006(4) 1-92.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004401.pub2
World Wide Web In-Text Example Reference List Examples
Document on
WWW
(Steel 2008 )
Steel W. (2008). Hints for web authors. Retrieved from http://www.mcsr.olemiss.edu/~mudws/webhints.html
Document on
WWW No
author
(British Empire 1922 2009 para.4)
Use paragraph numbers for html documents.
British Empire 1922 and other empires. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.angelfire.com/mac/egmatthews/worldinfo/europe/empire.html
Document on
WWW No date
(Royal Institute of British Architects n.d.)
Royal Institute of British Architects. (n.d.). Becoming an architect. Retrieved from
http://www.architecture.com/EducationAndCareersBecomingAnArchitectBecominganarchitect.aspx
Page 10 of 14
World Wide Web In-Text Example Reference List Examples
Entire Website not specific document
Give the URLof the site in the text:
Kidspsych (http://www.kidspsych.org) is a childrens website.
No entry required in the reference list
Blog post
Blog post reply
McDonald (2010) suggests that
(the smart one 2010)
Use the screen name for the author of a blog post if the author has adopted one.
McDonald S.(2010 September 27). Noise in the library. [Web log post]. Retrieved from
http://blogs.curtin.edu.au/library/2010/09
the smart one. (2010 October 3). Re: Noise in the library. [Web log comment]. Retrieved from
http://blogs.curtin.edu.au/library/2010/09
Include full URL
Conference paper in Proceedings
(Prayag & Ramjee 2009)
OR
As discussed by Prayag and Ramjee (2009)
Prayag I. L. & Ramjee R. (2009). The impact of Newcastle disease control on smallholder poultry production in Mauritius. In R. G. Alsers P. B. Spadbrow & M. P. Young (Eds.) Village chickens poverty alleviation and the sustainable control of Newcastle disease: Proceedings of an international conference held in Dar es Salaam Tanzania 5-7 October 2005 (pp. 132-134). Canberra ACT: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.
In the case of conference proceedings available electronically replace publisher and location details with the DOI where available or URL in the absence of DOI.
E-mail discussion list web archive
(cindiann 2009)
cindiann. (2009 July 23). Re: Recommended photography books [Online discussion group comment]. Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/groups/365libs/discuss/72157621780867836/
Use the screen name (or nickname) the author adopts if this is used in the discussion group entry.
Facebook
(Page Note or Update)
If date can be reasonably approximated use ca for (circa) [ca. 2010] (Group name 2009)
To cite a Facebook feed as a whole or to discuss it in general give the site URL in text inside parentheses. There is no need for a reference list entry.
When I was your age Pluto was a planet. [ca. 2009]. In Facebook [Group page]. Retrieved December 16 2009 from http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=2207893888
Image on the web
The photo Autumn ivy (Curtin University Library 2007)
Curtin University Library. (2007). Autumn ivy [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/photos/curtinuniversitylibrary/1440410713/
Page 11 of 14
World Wide Web In-Text Example Reference List Examples
ilecture
(Leaver 2012)
Leaver T. (2012). Social me(dia) rivers [ilecture]. Retrieved from
http://echo.ilecture.curtin.edu.au:8080/ess/echo/presentation/893b5284-ecad-4ad4-8af7-0ad2a1e19e24
Lecture notes
(Brieger 2005)
Brieger B. (2005). Lecture 3: Recruitment and involvement of trainees [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from
http://ocw.jhsph.edu/courses/TrainingMethodsContinuingEducation/lectureNotes.cfm
These are treated like books if they are published but like personal communication if they are your own notes or unpublished. Lecture notes are considered published if they have been copied and distributed in print or on the web with the instructors permission.
Podcast
(Seega & Swan 2005)
Seega B. (Producer) & Swan N. (Presenter). (2005 November 28). Adult ADHD [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/rn/talks/8.30/helthrpt
Twitter update or
tweet
(BarackObama 2009)
To cite a Twitter feed as a whole or to discuss it in general give the site URL in text inside parentheses. There is no need for a reference list entry.
BarackObama. (2009 July 15). Launched American Graduation Initiative to help additional 5 mill. Americans
graduate college by 2020: http://bit.ly/gcTX7 [Tweet]. Retrieved from http://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/2651151366
Video file
(e.g. YouTube video)
(markapsolon 2011)
markapsolon. (2011 September 9). Real ghost girl caught on Video Tape 14 [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6nyGCbxD848
Use the screen name markapsolon as it appears online.
If the users real name is available list it first followed by the screen name [markapsolon] in brackets
Web streaming video
Fukuyama (2006) recalled that
Fukuyama M. (2006). At the corner of me and myself: Voices of multiple social identities [Streaming video]. Hanover MA: Microtraining Associates. Retrieved from http://ctiv.alexanderstreet.com.dbgw.lis.curtin.edu.au/View/535741
Government Publications In-Text Example Reference List Examples
Acts of Parliament (including bills)
The Commonwealths Copyright Act 1968
(In future references omit date)
Legislation is included in a list of references only if it is important to an understanding of the work.
Set the list apart from the main body of the reference under the subheading Legislation.
Essential elements:
Short Title of Act (Jurisdiction) eg: Copyright Act 1968 (Cth)
When using a section in an Act you can do a pinpoint reference eg: Criminal Code WA s. 348
If legislation is obtained from an electronic database add a retrieved statement as for electronic journal articles.
Page 12 of 14
Government Publications In-Text Example Reference List Examples
Case
(John Fairfax Publications Pty Ltd v Gacic 2007)
John Fairfax Publications Pty Ltd v Gacic [2007] HCA 28
If case is obtained from an electronic database add a retrieved statement as for electronic journal articles.
Australian Bureau of Statistics Bulletin
(Australian Bureau of Statistics 2008)
OR
(Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS] 2008) and for subsequent citations use (ABS 2008)
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2008). Childhood education and care (No. 4402.0). Canberra ACT: Author.
The word Author is used as the publisher when the author and publisher are the same
Statistics from the Australian Bureau of Statistics
website
(Australian Bureau of Statistics 2008)
See above
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2008). Childhood education and care (No. 4402.0). Retrieved from
http://www.abs.gov.au
Census Information
(Australian Bureau of Statistics 2006)
See above
See above
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2006). Census of population and housing: B01 selected characteristics
(First release processing) postal area 6050. Retrieved from http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au
Government Report
(Bureau of Infrastructure Transport and Regional Economics 2010)
Bureau of Infrastructure Transport and Regional Economics. (2010). Aircraft movements through capital city airports to 2029-30 (Report 117). Retrieved from http://www.bitre.gov.au/publications/55/Files/
Report%20117.pdf
Fact Sheet
(RAND Corporation 2006)
RAND Corporation. (2006). Three steps for improving the quality of mental health care in the United States
[Fact sheet]. Retrieved from http://www.rand.org/pubs/research_briefs/2006/RAND_RB9190.pdf Other Sources In-Text Example Reference List Examples
Brochure
(Research and Training Centre on Independent Living 2008 p. 2)
Research and Training Centre on Independent Living. (2008). Guidelines for reporting and writing about people with disabilities (11th ed.) [Brochure]. Melbourne Vic: Author.
Add Author for the publisher when the author and publisher are the same.
Computer
Software
(Miller 1993)
Miller M. E. (1993). The interactive tester (Version 4.0) [Computer software]. Westminster CA: Psytek Services.
Instead of author use the Programmer or Rightsholder
Page 13 of 14
Other Sources In-Text Example Reference List Examples
ERIC document (microfiche)
Davis and Lombardi (1996) put forward the proposal that
Davis R. K. & Lombardi T. P. (1996). The quality of life of rural high school special education graduates. In Rural goals 2000: Building programs that work [Microfiche]. (ED394765).
Films and
Video recordings of films.
(Scorsese & Lonergan 2000)
Scorsese M. (Producer) & Lonergan K. (Writer/Director). (2000). You can count on me [Motion picture]. Hollywood CA: Paramount Pictures.
DVDs and video recordings
(American Psychological Association 2000)
American Psychological Association. (Producer). (2000). Responding therapeutically to patient expressions of sexual attraction [DVD]. Washington DC: Author.
The word Author is used as the publisher when the author and publisher are the same
Data Set
(U.S. Department of Education National Center for Education Statistics 2011)
U.S. Department of Education National Center for Education Statistics. (2011). IPEDS enrolment survey [Data file]. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/forum/datamodel/eiebrowser/datasets.aspx
Personal
communication e-mail and discussion lists with no web archive
It was confirmed that an outbreak
occurred in London (S. Savieri personal communication April 24 1999)
Not included in reference list as they cannot be traced by the reader.
Patent
U.S. Patent No. 66991798-B1 (2004)
OR
(U.S. Patent No. 66991798-B1 2004)
Lindsay S. J. (2004). U.S. Patent No. 66991798-B1. Derwent Innovations Index: United States Patent Office.
Standard
(Standards Australia 1997)
Standards Australia. (2010). Child restraint systems for use in motor vehicles (AS/NZ 1754:2010). Retrieved from http://www.saiglobal.com
Shorten URL
Television and
radio programmes -single episode in a series
(Thomason Rudd & Fineri 2007)
Thomason M. Rudd P. & Fineri W. (Writers/Directors). (2007). North West Passage [Television series episode]. In T. Wright (Supervising Producer) Captain Cook: Obsession and discovery. Melbourne Vic: Film Australia.
Television and
radio programmes -series or single programme
Leonard and de Pieri (2009)
Leonard D. (Producer) & de Pieri S. (Presenter). (2009). A gondola on the Murray [Television series]. Melbourne Vic: ABC Television.
A single programme is called a Television broadcast. Specify the broadcast date for a single programme.
Page 14 of 14
Authors citing other authors In-Text Examples Reference List Examples
Book
Quote by one author used in the text of a different book
including neuralgia (Carini & Hogan as cited in Thibodeau & Patton 2002 p. 45)
OR
Carini and Hogans study (as cited in Thibodeau & Patton 2002 p. 45)
Thibodeau G. A. & Patton K. T. (Eds.). (2002). The human body in health and disease. St. Louis MO:
Mosby.
Record the book that you actually used.
Journal article
Quote by one author used in the text of a different article
Carini and Hogans study (as cited in Patton 2002)
OR
origins of neuralgia (Carini & Hogan as cited in Patton 2002 p. 2154)
Patton K. T. (2002). Neuralgia and headaches. Science 400 2153-55.
Record the journal that you actually used.

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